Traditionally steel is used as a reinforcement in concrete. But because of cost and availability, replacement of steel with some other suitable materials as reinforcement is now a major concern. Though bamboo has been used as a construction material, especially in developing country, until today its use as reinforcement in concrete is very limited due to various uncertainties. Since bamboo is a natural, cheap and also readily available material, it can be a substitute of steel in reinforcing of concrete. In this paper, aptness of bamboo as reinforcement in concrete will be evaluated. To assess this, tensile strength test of bamboo having three and five nodes are performed. I m bamboo sticks of varying cross sections are used in this test. Also flexural strength test of bamboo reinforced beam is done to characterize the performance of bamboo as reinforcement. Singly and double bamboo reinforced beams of 750 mm length having 150 mm width and depth are compared with plain concrete beam to carry out in this test.
Due to the exhaustion of the world fossil fuels reserves, alongside its negative impacts on the environment, there is a worldwide interest in seeking alternatives preferably from renewable sources. Among the leading alternatives are Second Generation Bio-Ethanol fuels whose sources are mainly non- edible parts of food crops. They are effective since the process ensures a cleaner environment also eliminating competition with food crops for global food supplies. Although there are different process feed, this study focuses on lignocellulose biomass specifically sugarcane bagasse (sugar cane stalk residue) where the effect of both chemical and biological pre- treatment operating conditions for the overall yield of bio- ethanol production were carried out.
Underground conduits are the backbone of pipeline transportation. In the design of buried pipes, thorough study on behavior of pipes and soil are the utmost necessitate. The objective of the study is to predict the performance of Un-plasticized Poly Vinyl Chloride Pipe of varied diameter commercially available in the market buried at different levels of loose sand backfill. A laboratory model of the trench in the form of tank is made. The experimental test values are validated using the finite element software PLAXIS.
Batik home industry is widely developed at this time. Increasing the number of activies could increase environmental water pollution. Environmental pollution caused by batik waste water can be found in the river which is the main source of agricultural activities, fisheries and processed into drinking water sources. The aims of the study were to determine the ability of microorganisme in the Euchornia crassipes in improving the quality of water BOD and COD of waste water batik solution after treated with solution of water hyacinth microorganisme and rice sugarcane huskes and bamboo charcoal. Water waste solutions were taken from three different sites of home batik industries in: (1) Surakarta, (2) Sragen, and (3) Pekalongan. The Result showed that effluent pH dropped, temperature of liquid waste tends to fluctuate up and down with a difference of 1°C of the initial temperature of the liquid waste. Color Processing Waste after experiencing a decline of up, conductivity in the column reactor bagasse and rice husks column reactor increased and decreased in bamboo charcoal column reactor up.
In this research simulation process was according to the cost of the proposed algorithms. The proposed algorithms were as follow LA, CA and LOAC algorithms. NETBEANS software was employed for implementation of these algorithms. Results of simulation of this research were validated with pinch mark. The results of simulation were for two aspects, in terms of cost for four scenarios and in terms of processing time for seven different data centers. The results for costs were stated that the lower cost is happened at the first scenario and maximum cost happened at the third scenario. When it comes to the processing time, the maximum delay happens in data center No.6 while the minimum processing time happened in data center No.2.
The wireless telecommunication system of hybrid free-space optics (FSO) utilizes a transmission medium of free space to transmit data at high bit rates. However, it is exposed to various effects of noise in different weather conditions. This paper studies compensation for atmospheric turbulence and modal dispersion in optical communication systems. An investigation is carried out of 12-channel Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM) over FSO link under different weather conditions and few-mode fiber (FMF) based on linear Bessel filter. The experiments show that the system capacity increases effectively by using SDM over hybrid FSO- fiber to the home (FTTH) that operate at 1550 nm wavelength. A series of simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of a 12-channel transceiver system in an SDM-FSO link (based on electrical equalization at the receiver for FTTH) under different weather conditions. Transmissions of 120 Gbit/s are performed over a number of distances such as to 8500 m, 3900 m and 1400 m of hybrid FSO. This work is validated by measuring eye diagrams, Q-Factor and Bit Error Rates. The simulations showed that the values of the eye diagram, BER, and Q-Factor revealed significant results for the improvement of the bandwidth in the hybrid FSO-FTTH system.
The competition and development at various field is the current feature in our time. Construction sector is the most important of these areas, construction projects suffer from delay and uncertainty in the project completion time. The major reasons behind this situation are lack of modern planning techniques and uncertainty in the estimation of activity durations. The Critical Path Method (CPM) is an important technique for the planning and monitoring of construction project. Duration for each activity must be defined clearly for the successful implementation of Critical Path Method. Nevertheless, in practical states activity duration cannot be estimated in an accurate means due to many cases. Poor experience, lack of skilled labour, equipment oldness, market volatility, weather conditions, cash flow and so on are reasons that lead to unrealistic estimation of project activity durations. The researcher used fuzzy logic to overcome the uncertainty of estimating activity durations and present a new method to find the duration of activities under uncertainty situation.
In this competitive world engineering graduates are expected to be highly resourceful for employability. The present day employers give more emphasis to the employability skills of the potential engineers. There are several discussions and studies on “What types of skills and abilities are needed in the workplace?” This study attempts to explore the employability skills needed for the engineers to sustain in this global job market. This paper also puts forward the list of skills needed by the engineering graduates. On the whole, this paper suggests that the engineering graduates should acquire and demonstrate a set of generic skills such as communication skills, problem solving skills and interpersonal skills.
A method for processing the waste of sugar production – defecate and beet pulp – into highly effective biohumus fertilizer was proposed in the Article. The defecate, dry pulp and spent litter straw were mixed at a ratio of 2:1:1 by volume, and periodically moisturized to a moisture level of 70%. After that, representatives of the derived subspecies of earthworms Eisenia foetida were added into the substrate, according to the standards 10-12 pcs. on 1 l of mix. Laboratory analysis of the physico-chemical properties of the defecate, beet pulp and biohumus found that the organic fertilizer obtained according to the proposed scheme has a close to neutral acidity, and the ratio of humic acids to fulvic acids is close to optimal. The remaining agrochemical indicators also make it possible to consider the resulting biohumus to comply with all the necessary norms of this type of fertilizer.
From the earthquake histories in Indonesia, it was shown that the most damaged buildings was residential houses. The main issues of the poor seismic performance of the residential houses was due to poor detailing and low quality of construction materials. To be able to reduce seismic hazard potential for residential houses, there was a need to implement a low cost earthquake friendly system namely the low cost base isolation.Low cost base isolation is specifically designed for the residential house usage, using local Indonesian rubber and fiber reinforcement. In this paper three types of Indonesian rubber will be tested, namely RB 35, RB 70 and RB 90. The results shows that supposedly harder RB 70 Modulus was only higher at low strain level, but having lower Modulus at high strain level. It was also shown the hardest RB 90 having pretty low elongation before it breaks, making it risky touse for base isolator. The overall results shows that the RB 35 having highest elongation before it breaks and moderate Modulus is the most suitable for the low cost base isolation usage.